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Information Technology

Information technology (IT) is the application of computers and internet to store, retrieve, transmit, and manipulate data, or an information often in the context of a business or other enterprise.IT is considered a subset of information and communications technology (ICT). In 2012, Zuppo proposed an ICT hierarchy where each hierarchy level “contain some degree of commonality in that they are related to technologies that facilitate the transfer of information and various types of electronically mediated communications. Business/IT was one level of the ICT hierarchy.

The term is commonly used as a synonym for computers and computer networks, but it also encompasses other information distribution technologies such as television and telephones. Several industries are associated with information technology, including computer hardware, software, electronics, semiconductors, internet, telecom equipment, engineering, healthcare, e-commerce, and computer services.

Database

A database is an organized collection of data. It is the collection of schemas, tables, queries, reports, views, and other objects. The data are typically organized to model aspects of reality in a way that supports processes requiring information, such as modelling the availability of rooms in hotels in a way that supports finding a hotel with vacancies.A database management system (DBMS) is a computer software application that interacts with the user, other applications, and the database itself to capture and analyze data. A general-purpose DBMS is designed to allow the definition, creation, querying, update, and administration of databases. Well-known DBMSs include MySQL, PostgreSQL, Microsoft SQL Server, Oracle, Sybase, SAP HANA, and IBM DB2. A database is not generally portable across different DBMSs, but different DBMS can interoperate by using standards such as SQL and ODBC or JDBC to allow a single application to work with more than one DBMS. Database management systems are often classified according to the database model that they support; the most popular database systems since the 1980s have all supported the relational model as represented by the SQL language. Sometimes a DBMS is loosely referred to as a ‘database’.

Data storage

Computer data storage, often called storage or memory, is a technology consisting of computer components and recording media used to retain digital data. It is a core function and fundamental component of computers.The central processing unit (CPU) of a computer is what manipulates data by performing computations. In practice, almost all computers use a storage hierarchy, which puts fast but expensive and small storage options close to the CPU and slower but larger and cheaper options farther away. Generally the fast volatile technologies (which lose data when off power) are referred to as “memory”, while slower persistent technologies are referred to as “storage”; however, “memory” is sometimes also used when referring to persistent storage.
In the Von Neumann architecture, the CPU consists of two main parts: The control unit and the arithmetic / logic unit (ALU). The former controls the flow of data between the CPU and memory, while the latter performs arithmetic and logical operations on data.

Data retrieval

Data retrieval means obtaining data from a database management system such as ODBMS. In this case, it is considered that data is represented in a structured way, and there is no ambiguity in data.In order to retrieve the desired data the user present a set of criteria by a query. Then the Database Management System (DBMS), software for managing databases, selects the demanded data from the database. The retrieved data may be stored in a file, printed, or viewed on the screen.A query language, such as Structured Query Language (SQL), is used to prepare the queries. SQL is an American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standardized query language developed specifically to write database queries. Each DBMS may have its own language, but most relational.Reports and queries are the two primary forms of the retrieved data from a database. There are some overlaps between them, but queries generally select a relatively small portion of the database, while reports show larger amounts of data. Queries also present the data in a standard format and usually display it on the monitor; whereas reports allow formatting of the output however you like and is normally printed.Reports are designed using a report generator built into the DBMS.

Data transmission

Data transmission, digital transmission or digital communications is the physical transfer of data (a digital bit stream or a digitized analog signal) over a point-to-point or point-to-multipoint communication channel. Examples of such channels are copper wires, optical fibers, wireless communication channels, storage media and computer buses. The data are represented as an electromagnetic signal, such as an electrical voltage, radiowave, microwave, or infrared signal.
While analog transmission is the transfer of a continuously varying analog signal over an analog channel, digital communications is the transfer of discrete messages over a digital or an analog channel. The messages are either represented by a sequence of pulses by means of a line code (baseband transmission), or by a limited set of continuously varying wave forms (passband transmission), using a digital modulation method. The passband modulation and corresponding demodulation (also known as detection) is carried out by modem equipment. According to the most common definition of digital signal, both baseband and passband signals representing bit-streams are considered as digital transmission, while an alternative definition only considers the baseband signal as digital, and passband transmission of digital data as a form of digital-to-analog conversion.
Data transmitted may be digital messages originating from a data source, for example a computer or a keyboard. It may also be an analog signal such as a phone call or a video signal, digitized into a bit-stream for example using pulse-code modulation (PCM) or more advanced source coding (analog-to-digital conversion and data compression) schemes. This source coding and decoding is carried out by codec equipment.

Data manipulation

A data manipulation language (DML) is a family of syntax elements similar to a computer programming language used for selecting, inserting, deleting and updating data in a database. Performing read-only queries of data is sometimes also considered a component of DML.A popular data manipulation language is that of Structured Query Language (SQL), which is used to retrieve and manipulate data in a relational database.Other forms of DML are those used by IMS/DLI, CODASYL databases, such as IDMS and others.Data manipulation language comprises the SQL data change statements, which modify stored data but not the schema or database objects. Manipulation of persistent database objects, e.g., tables or stored procedures, via the SQL schema statements, rather than the data stored within them, is considered to be part of a separate data definition language. In SQL these two categories are similar in their detailed syntax, data types, expressions etc., but distinct in their overall function.Data manipulation languages tend to have many different flavors and capabilities between database vendors. There have been a number of standards established for SQL by ANSI,[1] but vendors still provide their own extensions to the standard while not implementing the entire standard.
Data manipulation languages are divided into two types, procedural programming and declarative programming.Data manipulation languages were initially only used within computer programs, but with the advent of SQL have come to be used interactively by database administrators.

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